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Sunday, 5 January 2014

Kọ́jọ́dá; Yorùbá New Year

In January, we wished friends, loved-ones a happy prosperous new year after the end of the Gregorian calender. 


GREGORIAN CALENDER

But do you know that Yorùbá has its indigenous calender? Even a Yorùbá new year, have you ever heard that?

That's right, we have our new year; dún tuntun,  distinct  from the Gregorian or Christian (onígbàgbó) and the Muslim (ìmàle) Hijra new year.

For your information, the Yorùbá  calender is called Kọ́jọ́dá. Traditionally, every 3rd day in June; Òkúdù is the entrance of a Yorùbá  new year. Approximately, year 2014 on the Yorùbá Kọ́jọ́dá will be dún 10056. Kọ́jọ́dá means may the day be foreseen. 


2008 KỌ́JỌ́DÁ BY REMI-NIYI ALARAN


Our ancestors - irúnmlẹ̀ have used the traditional Kọ́jọ́dá to foresee dates ọjọ́, festivals àjọ̀dún  and ceremonies ayy in time past (ayé àti)

Gradual lost - (ì)pàdán ní pele ní pele of 'our forefathers' baba ńlá wa heritage stems from the increase, varied European òyìnbó efforts ìyànjú, policies - ètò to make Africa forget gbàgbé our root (àṣà ìbílẹ̀ wa).


We know that the world over - a mọ̀ pé kárí ayé, the moon; òùpá serve ni as a means knowing time; aago in the olden days láyé ijọ́hun, and the sun oòrn was the day time ojú ọjọ́ while the moon is night alẹ́. This was how the days were divided into day-night. 



As the western culture is been imbibed by my people, our Kọ́jọ́dá was replaced, let to die for the Gregorian calender dates - ìṣe òyìnbó tó rinlẹ̀ ló mú kí a máa lo ìlànà ọjọ́ọ Gregorian dípòo tiwa n tiwa.

GREGORIAN CALENDER GOT TO AFRICA; EGYPT IN 1875 (COURTESY TONDERING.DK )

Four days make up a week in the Yorùbá calender (Kọ́jọ́dá) - Ọjọ́ mẹ́rin ni ọ̀sẹ̀ kan nílẹ̀ Yoòbá. Each day (ọjọ́ kànànkan is dedicated to a honour a deity or another (sì jẹ́ ọjọ́ ìbọ̀rìṣà kan), this correlates with modern day days of the week.

Deity (òrìṣà) of each Yorùbá day

  • First day of the week - Ọjọ́ kìníníọ̀sẹ̀ 

- Dedicated to honour Ọbàtálá (ọjọ́ ìbọ Ọbàtálá; Sọ̀pànná; Ìyáàmi; Egúngún)

  • Second day of the week - Ọjọ́ kejìọ̀sẹ̀

- A day for Ọ̀rúnmìlà: Èṣu; Ifá; Ọ̀ṣun (ọjọ́ fún Ọ̀rúnmìlà: Èṣu; Ifá; Ọ̀ṣun)

  • Third day of the week - Ọjọ́ kẹta ọ̀sẹ̀  

- Day reserved for Ògún; Oṣoosì (ọjọ́ òrìṣà  Ògún; Oṣoosì)

  • Fouth day of the week - Ọjọ́ kẹrin ọ̀sẹ̀  

- Dedicated to honour Ṣàǹgó; and wife Ọya (ọjọ́ fún òòṣà Ṣàǹgó, Ọya) 


The above shows which òòṣà is worshiped daily. Also, from January to December the 12 months have dedicated òrìṣà  festivals.  Later, the Kọ́jọ́dá had to be adjusted to synchronize with the modern calender with seven days (ọjọ́ méje), five working days - ọjọ́ òwò ṣíṣe márún, two weekends - ọjọ́ ìsinmi méjì.

Sundayọjọ́ Àìkú/ọjọ́-ọ̀sẹ̀/àko-ọjọ́ (day of immortality/first day of the week).
Mondayọjọ́ Ajé (day of profit, interest. Day Ajé came to ayé)
Tuesday ọjọ́ Ìṣẹ́gun (day of victory)
Wednesday ọjọ́ rírú (day of sacrifice)
Thursday ọjọ́ rúbọ;ọjọ́bọ (day of new creation, new dawn)
Friday  ọjọ́ Ẹtì  (day of deadlock)
Saturday ► ọjọ́ Àbámẹ́ta (day of three motions/suggestions)

Having said earlier - bí mo e s níàájú, we have ọjọ́ méje a week but the Yorùbá Kọ́jọ́dá has four - mẹ́rin. We have 91 weeks (ọ̀sẹ̀ àádọ́run-lé-mẹ́ta) on the Kọ́jọ́dá and 52 weeks (ọ̀sẹ̀ àádọ́taléméjì  on the western calender.


From these analysis - pẹ̀lú àlàyé yìí, the Yorùbá new year ọdún tuntun commences bẹ̀rẹ̀ ní June 3rd to end June 2nd of another year i.e June 3, 2014 to June 2, 2015 (ọjọ́ kẹ́ta oṣù Òkúdù sí ọjọ́ kejì oṣù Òkúdùọdún tó ń bọ̀).

May i use this moment to wish you a happy Yorùbá new year - mo kíi yín kú ọdún tuntun.